Cardiology focuses on the health and functioning of the cardiovascular system. The system refers to the heart and blood vessels of the body and both Cardiologists and Cardiovascular surgeons administer treatment for any damage sustained by the system.
Cardiologists diagnose and treat conditions like Cardiomyopathy, congenital heart disease, coronary artery diseases. Patients under their care are referred to cardiovascular surgeons if there is a requirement for procedures like pacemaker attachment, bypass surgery or valve surgery.
Both roles have become essential due to the growing rate of cardiovascular conditions among the population. With the continued technological advancement in the field of medicine, Cardiology has also seen an improvement in treatment capabilities and providing cutting-edge solutions to resolve or decrease severity of heart conditions.
In department of cardiac surgery following diseases are being treated.
1. Ischemic Heart Disease
- Caused by narrowing of arteries supplying blood to the heart (Atherosclerosis)
- Symptoms include chest pain, shortness of breath, jaw pain, epigastric pain
2. Valvular Heart Diseases
- Caused mostly by rheumatic fever or senile degeneration. The valves either get narrowed or start leaking
- Symptoms include shortness of breath, Palpitations, thromboembolism, vertigo, chest pain
3. Aortic Dissection.
- Caused by separation of layers of aorta with blood flowing in true and false lumens
- Symptoms include severe chest pain radiating to back,
4. Acute and Chronic limb ischemia
- Caused by narrowing of arteries or embolus.
- Symptoms include pain in the effected limb, cold limb, loss of sensations and function
5. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
- Caused by hypertrophy of interventricular septum
- Symptoms include palpitations, chest pain, shortness of breath
6. Constrictive pericarditis
- Caused by thickening and calcification of the pericardium. (the membrane covering the heart)
7. Heart Tumors
- Caused by growth
- Symptoms include shortness of breath or embolisation leading to limb ischemia or stroke.
Following procedures are being carried out in our department
1. Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting. (CABG)
- The narrowing in the artery is bypassed using a autologous vascular conduit. Both conventional and off pump CABG is being done
2. Valve repairs and replacements
- Mitral Valve Repair
- Mitral valve replacement
- Aortic valve replacement
- Tricuspid valve repair
- Aortic annular enlargement for small aortic roots to prevent Patient Prosthesis Mismatch
3. Aortic root replacement (Bental Procedure)
- The dissected part of the aorta is replaced by a synthetic graft
4. Embolectomy and vascular bypass
- Either the embolus is removed or vascular bypass is done
- Part of the interventricular septum causing narrowing of LVOT is resected
- The thickened pericardium is resected to release its constrictive effects on the heart
7. Excision of heart tumors.
- Mostly LA myxomas are resected.
In our department we are doing MINIMALLY INVASIVE CARDIAC SURGERY (MICS).
In MICS instead of doing median sternotomy the valves are repaired or replaced by a small incision on right side of chest. The benefits are cosmesis, less pain, less infection and early return to job.